Zero-modes and global antiferromagnetism in strained graphene
Phys. Rev. X, 4 (2), 021042, (2014)
A novel magnetic ground state is reported for the Hubbard Hamiltonian in strained graphene. When the chemical potential lies close to the Dirac point, the ground state exhibits locally both the Néel and ferromagnetic orders, even for weak Hubbard interaction. Whereas the Néel order parameter remains of the same sign in the entire system, the magnetization at the boundary takes the opposite sign from the bulk. The total magnetization vanishes this way, and the magnetic ground state is globally only an antiferromagnet. This peculiar ordering stems from the nature of the strain-induced single-particle zero-energy states, which have support on one sublattice of the honeycomb lattice in the bulk, and on the other sublattice near the boundary of a finite system. We support our claim with the self-consistent numerical calculation of the order parameters, as well as by the Monte Carlo simulations of the Hubbard model in both uniformly and nonuniformly strained honeycomb lattice. The present result is contrasted with the magnetic ground state of the same Hubbard model in the presence of a true magnetic field (and for vanishing Zeeman coupling), which is exclusively Néel ordered, with zero local magnetization everywhere in the system.